The Rio Olympics anti-doping program was successful despite a lack of trained staff and resources, the International Olympic Committee said on Friday following a World Anti Doping Agency report noting "serious failings" in the process.
The 55-page report outlined that a full 2016 test history on athletes on the International Olympic Committee's entry list the week prior to the opening of the Athletes' Village had been conducted by a Pre-Games Intelligence Taskforce.
WADA said the role of its Independent Observer Team is to help instill confidence in athletes and the public as to the quality, effectiveness and reliability of the anti-doping program for the Olympics, and to make recommendations for improvements.
Additional concerns were expressed over inadequate support for and training of the chaperones employed to notify athletes of drug tests, with many of them failing to turn up at all at the designated time.
"On some days, up to 50 percent of planned target tests were aborted".
The report said: "Chaperones were often provided with little or no whereabouts information for athletes targeted for out-of-competition testing in the Athletes Village, and therefore, the majority of times had to resort to asking team officials and/or athletes from the same team where the athletes they were looking for were located".
And observers said computers and printers needed to receive and print out "mission orders" sometimes did not work.
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In total, nearly 500 fewer anti-doping tests were carried out than had been planned - 4,882 compared to the 5,380 scheduled.
In another key failure, the report said no out-of-competition testing was conducted in soccer and "little or no in-competition blood testing" in some high risk-sports, including weightlifting. In reality, 4,882 were carried out.
And of the 450 Athlete Biological Passport tests due to be done, only 47 were carried out.
WADA commissioned two reports fromCanadian lawprofessor McLaren, the first to determine the facts with respect to allegations of Russian state manipulation of the doping control processmade Grigory Rodchenkov, the former director of the WADA-accredited laboratory in Moscow. "Due to their initiative, tenacity and professionalism in the face of great difficulties, the many problems identified above were patched over and sample collection was conducted in a manner that ensured the identity and integrity of the samples".
Numerous recommendations related to training and treatment of volunteers, proper attention to rosters and protocol, more lead-time for doping control officers in the venues and better logistics and equipment to locate athletes for out-of-competition testing.
The report praised improvements made to Rio's anti-doping laboratory, which had been suspended by WADA just six weeks before the Games for failing to meet global standards.
But Wada said it had been "superbly equipped", and was "operated very securely and generally very efficiently".