This year's elections are being counted by hand due to concerns that electronic systems could be hacked.
Rutte, who hopes economic recovery will help him carry the election, has insisted he will neither accept Wilders as a coalition partner nor rely on his support for a minority government, as he did in 2010-2012.
Some of Wilder's supporters told RT ahead of the election that the Party for Freedom is shaping the new political agenda for the Netherlands.
Wilders had pledged to close the borders to Muslim immigrants, shut mosques, ban sales of the Koran and leave the European Union, if he was elected the largest party in the parliament.
Dutch conservative and nationalist parties could gain an extra five seats between them following the diplomatic row and weekend rioting over a Turkish minister's attempt to hold a political rally in Rotterdam, a snap poll published on Monday showed.
If the informateur is successful, the monarch appoints the leader of the coalition as the prospective prime minister (formateur), who then allocates ministerial portfolios. While Wilders' Party for Freedom is in second place in polling for Wednesday's elections, it trailed in fourth in the school election with 12.6 percent.
Rutte's attack centred on Wilders' prolific tweeting, which has caused huge controversy in the run-up to the election.
The VVD is the party of the ruling Prime Minister Mark Rutte.
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After casting his ballot in the Hague, Wilder said: "Whatever the outcome of the election today, the genie will not go back into the bottle".
The VVD is predicted to return as the biggest party in the 150-seat parliament with 23 to 27 seats, according to the latest polls.
With the anti-Islam, far-right lawmaker Geert Wilders running just behind two-term right-wing Prime Minister Mark Rutte in polls, the Dutch vote could give an indication of whether the tide of populism that swept Britain toward the European Union exit door and Donald Trump into the White house has peaked.
Wilders had won support on Tuesday from ideological ally French far-right presidential hopeful Marine Le Pen who called him "a patriot".
He added that a lack of trade deal with the United Kingdom would also be detrimental to the Netherlands, which now exports 8 percent of its goods to Britain.
But Wilders retorted: "The Netherlands is not for everyone". "But Wilders plays a major role in the tone and content of the campaign and Wilders - even if he doesn't win a single seat - has already won because the two biggest right-wing parties have taken over his policies". After the votes have been counted, protracted discussions will take place to form the next coalition government.
Wilders has little chance of forming a government, since other parties have ruled out a coalition with a party they view as racist.
Amid the tussle between Rutte and Wilders, numerous 12.9 million eligible voters had been wavering between the record 28 parties running.