Trump is increasing pressure on Russian President Vladimir Putin to abandon Assad just as U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson is visiting Moscow.
There were only a handful of issues Tillerson and Lavrov said they broadly agreed on - that the Korean peninsula should be denuclearized, Syria should be "unified and stable" after the Islamic State is defeated, and that there should be more communication between U.S. and Russian diplomats and militaries.
Foreign Minister Wang Yi urged all parties on Thursday, especially the USA and Russian Federation, to strengthen communication and avoid confrontation over Syria.
China, which has vetoed six resolutions on Syria since the civil war began six years ago, abstained from Wednesday's vote, along with Ethiopia and Kazakhstan.
The US said it has "no doubt" Syria was behind the gas attack on the town of Sheikhoun that killed 87 people on April 4.
Lavrov however said that the two sides still "diverge" over their evaluation of the alleged chemical attack, which Washington has blamed squarely on Syrian President Bashar Assad.
Trust between Russia and the USA has degraded under the Trump administration, Russian President Vladimir Putin stated. We won't get a political solution overnight.
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Lavrov met Friday with his counterparts from Syria and Iran after U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson visited Moscow earlier this week.
Mr Lavrov admitted relations between the two nations "are not the most calm" and some issues were "time bombs" inherited from the Obama administration.
The Syrian strongman said he couldn't have unleashed a poison gas strike on innocent civilians because the country has gotten rid of its chemical weapons arsenal. Lavrov said the meeting between Tillerson and Putin lasted for over two hours.
But the civil war in Syria has driven a wedge between Moscow and Washington, upending what many in Russian Federation hoped would be a transformation in relations, which reached a post-Cold War low under Trump's predecessor Barack Obama.
"Russia, as their closest ally in the conflict, perhaps has the best means of helping Assad recognise this reality", he told a news conference. "We don't have [a chemical weapons] arsenal and we're not going to use it, and you have many indications if you don't have proof, because no one has concrete evidence. Russian Federation now has a lot to prove", US Ambassador Nikki Haley said.
Trump had called the military alliance, which is a bulwark against Russian Federation, "obsolete" while campaigning for the presidency.
Tillerson did raise the prospect of criminal proceedings at some point over the attack, including against Assad himself, but warned there were be major legal obstacles to this. "I do not know who saw them".
Mr Putin's decision to host Mr Tillerson signalled Moscow's intent to maintain communication with the United States even as the countries bash each other publicly in louder and louder tones.