Khashoggi, 59, a critic of the crown prince, was killed and dismembered in the Saudi consulate in Istanbul on October 2.
Turkey has said the murder was carried out by a team of Saudis who travelled to Istanbul for that goal. The prosecutor has requested the death penalty for the five who "are charged with ordering and committing the crime and for the appropriate sentences for the other indicted individuals", an official statement published by state news agency SPA said.
The phone call did not mention the Prince by name, but The New York Times reported that United States intelligence officials believe "your boss" was a reference to the young ruler, while Turkish intelligence officers said they thought he was speaking to one of Bin Salman's aides.
Khashoggi was killed inside the Saudi consulate in Istanbul on October 2, and Turkey has given the United States government a recording of the murder, but Trump said he would not listen to it "because it's a suffering tape, it's a bad tape".
Trump and other members of his administration have emphasized Saudi Arabia's importance to USA objectives in the Middle East, including a pending Israeli-Palestinian peace plan and the campaign against Iran, and stressed the economic importance of the arms sales. "The CIA is going to be speaking to me today", Trump told reporters before leaving the White House for a visit to California.
Shalaan al-Shaalan, the kingdom's deputy public prosecutor, revealed that 21 people are in custody over the grisly killing and charges have been brought against 11 of them.
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The journalist's remains were then taken by someone outside the consulate grounds, the attorney general said.
The Arab League expressed support for the measures taken by the Kingdom.
Asked whether he would go along with moves in the US Congress to cut off US involvement in the Saudi-led war in Yemen or halt arms sales to the kingdom, Mr Trump equivocated.
The administration this past week penalised 17 Saudi officials for their alleged role in the killing, but American politicians have called on the administration to curtail arms sales to Saudi Arabia or take other harsher punitive measures.
This past week, US intelligence officials briefed members of the Senate and House intelligence committees, and the Treasury Department announced economic sanctions on 17 Saudi officials suspected of being responsible for or complicit in the killing. In Berlin his office said they can't release the names due to German privacy protections. Trump considers the Saudis vital allies in his Mideast agenda. "It was also an affront to a free and independent press, and the United States is determined to hold all of those accountable who are responsible for that murder". "America's response to Khashoggi's murder has significant implications for our credibility around the globe, and there must be further sanctions on Saudi leadership who ordered this assassination".
The Post's report says that when Khashoggi spoke to Khalid Salman, the latter told him that he could go to the consulate at Istanbul for the documents and even assured Khashoggi that it will be safe.