The lobbying work is not illegal if the foreign agents register with the Justice Department as per the Foreign Agents Registration Act (FARA).
Flynn, who pleaded guilty in that case, has been cooperating with special counsel Robert Mueller's ongoing investigations.
Bijan Kian and Kamil Alptekin were charged in U.S. District Court in Eastern Virginia with crimes related acting as unregistered agents of the Turkish government, according to court documents made public Monday. The pair sought to hide that the work was, in fact, directed by the Turkish government, federal prosecutors said. His case was connected to new charges unveiled on Monday against associates of Michael Flynn.
The Justice Department has resisted extraditing the cleric, Fethullah Gulen, because officials don't see evidence he had directed a coup in Turkey.
Over the years, Erdogan has hired US public relations firms and lobbyists to generate negative press coverage of Gulen and pressure Washington for his extradition. In recommending he serve no prison time, prosecutors said Flynn not only helped with the Russian Federation probe but also an undisclosed - and separate - criminal investigation.
North Korea condemns US sanctions, warns denuclearisation at risk
North Korea has repeatedly urged the U.S.to scale back sanctions in exchange for the regime taking steps toward denuclearization. Trump said in a news conference after the midterm elections he expects to meet with Kim sometime early next year.
Flynn is referred to in the indictment only as 'Person A'.
Former Flynn business partner Bijan Rafiekian ― aka Bijan Kian ― and Turkish businessman Kamil Alptekin were named in a December 12 indictment alleging illegal work in the United States on behalf of the government of Turkey.
Alptekin is also charged with failing to register as a foreign agent and also making false statements.
If that name sounds familiar, it may be from the now-infamous op-ed Flynn wrote for The Hill on Election Day 2016 headlined "Our ally Turkey is in crisis and needs our support". But the Turkish foreign minister claims Trump administration officials are now working on a plan to extradite Gulen, and reportedly even considered doing so as a bargaining chip to persuade Erdoğan to back down from his standoff with Saudi Arabia over the suspected political murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi.
Flynn, a retired three-star general, pleaded guilty previous year to lying to the Federal Bureau of Investigation about conversations he had with the then-Russian ambassador.