International defence think-tank the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) ranked China the second-largest spender on defence in the world with a military expenditure of $250 billion in 2018.
It is the 10th white paper of its kind since 1998.
China's Defense Ministry pointed Wednesday to an article in Hong Kong law that allows the army to step in upon request during public security incidents, as tumult in the city amid summer-long protests has fueled fears that the military will intervene. The ministry said China made no promise to renounce the use of force in Taiwan Strait if necessary.
"This hostile signaling of resolve may backfire within Taiwan by exacerbating anxieties that are already heightened by the clear failures of the model of "one country, two systems" in Hong Kong", Kania said.
"We firmly oppose and condemn Beijing authorities for using cross-strait issues as a pretext for military expansion and threatening to use force against Taiwan", it said in a statement. While Washington does not have formal diplomatic ties with the island, USA law requires that it provide Taiwan with sufficient defense equipment and services for self-defense.
Documents reveal Huawei’s plans to build North Korea’s wireless network
The company's work with Panda reportedly spanned at least eight years, and the arrangement helped obscure Huawei's involvement. There is now no word on whether North Korean officials are anxious about China using Huawei's infrastructure to spy on them.
While some major powers are developing new types of countering armed forces and accelerating the pace of combat preparations, China has determinedly resisted engaging in any arm race. The U.S., independent analysts and human rights groups have estimated that around 1 million Muslims have been detained in internment camps as part of what the government calls a counterterrorism campaign.
It also reinforces that the contested waters of the South China Sea and Diaoyu Islands (referred to as Senkaku in Japan) are inseparable parts of the Chinese territory. They say members of their predominantly Muslim ethnic groups have been arbitrarily detained and subject to political indoctrination.
The U.S. deployment of a missile defense system in South Korea has severely undermined the regional strategic balance, the report said.
China has long called the Dalai Lama a unsafe separatist.
The White Paper also said that the PLA played an important role in protecting China's growing overseas interests, which Defence Ministry spokesman Wu Qian said did not contradict the official position that China's military was on the path of peaceful development. But the exiled Tibetan Buddhist spiritual leader maintains that he only wants a greater degree of autonomy for the region.
Observers said China's evolving military posture reflected growing rivalry with the U.S., which under the Trump administration has labelled China as a strategic competitor and revisionist power, and which has openly criticised Beijing's policies in Tibet and Xinjiang.
China's paper said the situation in the South China Sea was "generally stable and improving" as regional countries are properly managing risks and differences.